Michael F. Shaughnessy –
1) Professor Varela – a reputation that’s virtually synonymous with the nervous system is a Spaniard- Santiago Ramón y Cajal – the place and when was he born and when did he go to high school?
Prof. Shaughnessy, I feel you’ll
tremendously recognize the life and science of the very well-known Santiago
Felipe Ramón y Cajal, who is taken into account by many a biomedical
neuroscientist as one of many founding fathers of neuroscience. A
nice deal of literature has been written about and by Ramón y
Cajal. He was a prolific author in his time, each popularly as properly
The well-known Dr. Ramón y Cajal is properly
recognized for having found the neuronal construction referred to as the
synapse, the connection between neurons. He’s additionally well-known for having
formulated the so-called neuron concept, the concept the mind, the
nervous tissue, consists of discrete, separate neurons, as opposed
to the wrong concept that the mind is system of fused cells.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal wrote in his
best-selling autobiographical memoir “Recollections of my Life”
that he was born on the primary day of the month of Might, within the yr
1852, in a small Spanish city referred to as Petilla de Aragon, which was
located within the area referred to as Navarre, within the province of Zaragoza,
close to the city of Sos del Rey Católico, Spain. Dr. Ramón y Cajal
attributes his later successes as a scientist on to each of his
mother and father.
Santiago’s father, Dr. Justo Ramón
Casasús, was a rustic physician and surgeon, who later turned a
professor of utilized anatomy. Santiago’s mom was Antonia Cajal,
who’s described quite fondly by her grateful son. Dr. Ramón y
Cajal additionally wrote that in response to her siblings, his mom in her
youthful days was a fantastic, vibrant, and caring younger lady who
later as a mom turned dedicated to her son. He described how she
fretted over his security as he went on his many outside mountaineering
excursions. He described his father as possessing an astonishing
proclivity for reminiscence recollection, a robust work ethic, a agency
believer in perseverance and, from a constructive standpoint, ambition.
He conveyed that his father might recite whole written works about
pathology on command. He additionally recalled his father having to beat
a profound array of adversity so as to purchase his dream of
turning into a surgeon.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal’s childhood
schooling began in a small city referred to as Valpalmas. Nevertheless, his
father homeschooled him on numerous topics, akin to studying,
grammar, French, arithmetic, geography and physics. Even whereas away
in Madrid at medical faculty, his father managed to offer
instruction for younger Santiago by correspondence. He recounted one
horrible day when his elementary faculty at Valpalmas had been struck
by lightning, killing the parish priest, who had been struck
instantly, and injuring the varsity mistress. One other occasion recounted
by younger Ramón y Cajal was a lunar eclipse of the solar, precisely
predicted to happen in 1860. The occasion reworked younger Santiago
as a result of it offered an eternal belief in science which he discovered
was superb sufficient to foretell such astronomical phenomena. I feel
many younger starting scientists share an identical kind of wonderment
with the pure world.
On the age of 10, Ramón y Cajal was
despatched to a boarding faculty, a university for wayward youngsters and run by
Esculapian friars in Jaca, Spain. In 1864, preparations have been made for
12-year previous Ramón y Cajal to switch to a different faculty, this one at
Huesca. It was later reported by Ramón y Cajal that his grades at
each establishments, whereas passing in all topics, have been nonetheless much less
than stellar. Thus, with a view to focus his idle time on extra constructive
features, his father organized for Ramón y Cajal to start an
apprenticeship beneath the auspices of a barber, through the third
session of his bachelor’s diploma program whereas in secondary faculty
at Huesca. Buying failing grades the next yr, in 1866,
Ramón y Cajal’s father then organized for entry into an
apprenticeship as a shoemaker.
One other intervention by his father at
hand, it was determined that, in 1868, younger Ramón y Cajal would now
take up the topic of osteology, the research of bones. The subject
intrigued him, particularly when accompanied by midnight excursions to
abandoned cemeteries so as to purchase the requisite anatomical
Invoking the “learn-by-doing”
technique of schooling, younger Ramón y Cajal developed an acumen for
anatomical information. Additional, he utilized his experience with drawing
to conduct his research. Previous to this, Ramón y Cajal’s zeal for
drawing had been some extent of battle between himself and his father.
As an alternative, it was now some extent of connection between the daddy and son
Efficiently finishing the
necessities for his bachelor’s diploma Ramón y Cajal then enrolled
in preparatory faculty for a further yr, taking programs in
pure historical past, physics, and chemistry, earlier than entry into medical
faculty. It’s at this level that the 17-year previous Ramón y Cajal
turned a critical scholar and efficiently accomplished the required
prep programs for the research of drugs.
In 1870, he enrolled in medical faculty
on the College of Zaragoza. He devoted himself to the classical
research of anatomy, performing dissections on human cadavers guided by
open books and making cautious drawings through the course of research.
Through the latter a part of his second yr he had generated a big
anatomy portfolio and have become a dissection assistant, which took a
nice deal of his time. Relating to this, Ramón y Cajal recounted an
Apparently, he had been publically
chastised for his lack of attendance in a course on obstetrics,
taught by Prof. Ferrer, who was put out by Ramón y Cajal’s
absences through the lectures. Ramón y Cajal replied that his
dissection work had precluded any pleasure of prof. Ferrer lectures,
however that he (Ramón y Cajal) was, however, fairly properly versed in
the course materials. Calling his bluff, Prof. Ferrer made Ramón y
Cajal truly go to the board in entrance of the category through the
lecture in an effort to present for all in attendance the origins of the
fetal membranes. As requested, Ramón y Cajal proceeded to do precisely
that, clearly drawing on the board each membrane of the blastoderm,
full with their particular person levels, umbilical vessels and the
allantois, and so forth., and precisely together with the arrows with their
physiological explanations, inside the diagram. With Ramón y Cajal’s
acumen of the subject publically demonstrated for all to see, Prof.
Ferrer and the scholars have been astounded. After the incident, Prof.
Ferrer had been transformed to the ingeniousness of Ramón y Cajal and
gleefully excused all future attendance necessities for the period
of the course.
Ramón y Cajal confesses in his memoirs
that he had been supremely luck that day. It had been the one matter
he had been well-versed in as a result of it had additionally been coated in throughout
the course of his dissections. He additional writes that had prof.
Ferrer requested him about another matter in any way from
the obstetrics course, the great professor would have found his
(Ramón y Cajal’s) full ignorance of the whole the rest of
the course materials.
However, Ramón y Cajal flourished
whereas in medical faculty, and he took his medical diploma in June of
1873, acquiring the title of licensure in drugs, incomes honors in
the sector of anatomy.
2) Apparently, in his youth, Ramón y
Cajal was considerably of a rapscallion. Any fascinating early tales?
A self-proclaimed rapscallion, Dr.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in his well-known memoirs that when he was
younger his mother and father and academics, with various levels of success, had
to have an unprecedented quantity of endurance with him.
On the age of 10 yr in boarding
faculty at Jaca, he described bullying by college students and dreadful
mistreatment by academics involving beatings, isolation, humiliation,
and hunger as numerous modes of punishment. He additional conveyed
that faculty curricula at Jaca was taught by rote memorization.
In response to Ramón y Cajal, neither the draconian punishments nor
the educating strategies produced their respective desired results upon
him at Jaca. He discovered a number of methods to flee confinement with a purpose to
discover meals at his uncle’s close by home, and he found out learn how to
return to his routine confinement with out detection, for a reasonably
giant variety of days. Ultimately, his scheme was found, and speak
of everlasting disenrollment for younger Ramón y Cajal was bandied
about, till his father intervened with a letter of reply, imploring
the authorities to loosen up the harshness of their remedy in the direction of his
Not surprisingly, contemplating the
interruption in educating Ramón y Cajal with the vicious cycle of
behavior-punishment he failed to review successfully. In reality he writes
that he had misplaced curiosity in studying the themes. Together with his
professors at Jaca able to flunk him outright, his father organized
for an unbiased evaluation of his educational efficiency by
professors from the close by Institute of Huesca, who had not been
conscious of Ramón y Cajal’s behavioral historical past at Jaca. Simply as
readily the Huesca school gave him passing marks after having
independently graded the identical work.
His switch the subsequent yr to high school at
Huesca was organized. Whereas his academics have been considerably much less
draconian than their counterparts had been at Jaca, his fellow
college students at Huesca have been, sadly, extra harsh of their bullying.
Maybe discovering solace within the surrounding great thing about Huesca and its
countryside, Ramón y Cajal crammed many pages of his sketch e-book with
drawings of butterflies, timber, rocks, streams, and particularly,
flowers. Ramón y Cajal reported that he had drawn each flower he
might discover, however had heard of uncommon specimens that weren’t part of
his sketch e-book portfolio. It’s, thus, together with his drawings of uncommon
flowers that Ramón y Cajal recollects two memorable incidents at
Huesca, each occasions of which handled tried flower thefts.
The primary incident with flower theft
occurred when Ramón y Cajal and two of his classmates made a
nighttime raid and scaled the wall of a backyard containing a coveted
specimen, the rose of Alexandria, fascinating due to its colours,
appropriate for drawing, in addition to, by the way, for its perfume.
Virtually instantly, the trio of would-be flower thieves have been
found and chased, with Ramón y Cajal ultimately making good his
escape. His two companions, nevertheless, have been caught and, consequently,
crushed somewhat severely by their two capturing gardeners.
The second incident transpired when
Ramón y Cajal tried a solo flower heist in one other backyard, this
time in that of a railway station, which harbored one other wonderful flower
specimen, tea roses, appropriate for drawing due to its form. This
time the raid was made in broad daylight, and having scaled the
fence, Ramón y Cajal stole the beautiful flower and scaled again the
similar wall, the place a railway official was ready. As what occurred
with the primary tried flower heist, one other chase ensued. Ramón y
Cajal misplaced his chaser however fell in a quagmire of slimy mud whereas
trying to leap a ditch. A number of witnesses who turned sympathetic
to the hapless younger Ramón y Cajal caught within the mud pulled him out,
and, being clothes-washers, proceeded to scrub his slimy garments whereas
he huddled incognito behind a close-by willow tree. It’s at this level
that the railway chaser lastly caught up with the alleged flower
thief. With the spectacle of Ramón y Cajal soiled and half-clothed,
the official might solely burst out laughing, selecting to not pursue
the matter, if not additionally involved with sliming his personal clear uniform.
Ramón y Cajal associated that his foul-smelling, muddy, and slimy state
proved to be an invincible go well with of armor towards additional prosecution.
The subsequent yr of faculty, again at
Huesca, this time accompanied by his youthful brother, Pedro, the
Ramón y Cajal brothers undertook rock throwing with the help
slingshot units and have become proficient, if not correct, of their
aiming. One incident particularly was conveyed in his memoirs
relating to a stone-hurtling battle with one other group of youngsters by which
police have been caught within the crossfire and injured. The story is informed
that the ringleaders, Ramón y Cajal amongst them, have been hidden for a
few days inside the house of a schoolmaster, who had had a previous
grudge with the police and selected, thus, to not assist them.
One other rock throwing battle that very same
yr concerned a beating of younger Ramón y Cajal by one other sufferer
caught within the crossfire, this time by a mountaineer who had been
herding a practice of mules. In response to Ramón y Cajal the mountaineer
incorrectly attributed a stray stone putting him on to the
seen younger boy. Protesting his innocence whereas the purported actual
wrongdoers have been hiding from view, the disbelieving mountaineer gave
younger Ramón y Cajal a sound thrashing after which went on his means.
Vowing revenge for receiving an unjust punishment, the younger Ramón y
Cajal shadowed the mountaineer, and when circumstances have been ripe,
delivered a recent barrage of stones upon him. A grievance that was
consequently filed with the police led nowhere, because the id of
Ramón y Cajal was unknown.
However, many the native villagers
have been truly very nicely conscious of Ramón y Cajal and of his stone
slinging popularity. Faculty women his age have been conscious, too, particularly
of 1 woman particularly named Silvería Fañanás García, all of
whom would flee for worry of his correct stone slinging. Ramón y
Cajal would recount how this similar woman would later marry him, in
1879, having three sons and 4 daughters collectively.
three) Apparently considered one of his main
contributions was his research of the construction of the cortex of the
mind. How did he turn out to be concerned on this?
Dr. Ramón y Cajal was already a full
professor on the College of Valencia, having established himself
already within the scientific world, coping with the sector of histology,
when in 1887, he paid an historic go to to Dr. Luis Simarro, a pal
and colleague. Dr. Simarro was himself nicely established as a famous
neurologist and psychiatrist. He was the primary investigator to
introduce the brand new silver chromate staining technique of Golgi.
Dr. Camillo Golgi was a outstanding
investigator and professor of histology who was housed on the
College of Pavia, the place he developed the well-known staining method
of nervous system tissue, in1873. Dr. Golgi would share the Nobel
with Dr. Ramón y Cajal, in Drugs or Physiology, in 1906.
Dr. Simarro had been utilizing the
method to review mind tissue. Throughout that fateful go to in 1887,
when Dr. Simarro confirmed his Golgi-inspired slides to Dr. Ramón y
Cajal, he was instantly impressed with the slides he noticed.
Upon returning to his personal laboratory
again on the College of Valencia, Dr. Dr. Ramón y Cajal
instantly invoked the Golgi staining technique and instructed his
laboratory personnel to do the identical. Thus, Dr. Ramón y Cajal’s
laboratory started a scientific research of the cerebellum, the cerebrum,
the spinal twine, the olfactory bulb, and the retina, amongst different
tissues, of younger animals and of embryos. It’s at this level the place
Dr. Ramón y Cajal made a tremendously essential discovery.
Utilizing the staining technique of Golgi, Dr.
Ramón y Cajal discovered that nervous tissue consisted of particular person,
discrete, parts that could be in bodily contact with each other
however have been nonetheless separate entities. He additional discovered that lengthy
nerve cells had ends, additional supporting the notion that nerve cells
have been distinctive people.
Importantly, Dr. Ramón y Cajal had
found that nervous system cells weren’t fused with one another,
which had been an incorrect notion believed by Dr. Golgi and by
nearly all different neuroscientists on the time.
Based mostly on his Golgi staining
observations, Dr. Ramón y Cajal went on to postulate the neuron
concept, which said that the mind consisted of particular person neurons,
and never fused cells. In a way, Dr. Ramón y Cajal had found
the neuron, the person nerve cell. Thus, Dr. Ramón y Cajal
established the neuron as a elementary unit of the mind.
four) Histology appears to have been one other
space of curiosity for this Nobel Prize winner- what precisely do
scientists imply by this and what have been his contributions?
The sector of histology has to do with
the research of tissues that embody dwelling beings. As a way to
visualize cells of dwelling tissue within the microscope the specimen should
typically be stained with colourful chemical compounds so as to take action. Such
histological work regularly entails buying tissue samples from
organisms, carving the tissue samples into very skinny slices, fixing
or embedding the tissue slices onto microscope slides, staining the
fastened tissue slices with numerous chemical compounds, and utilizing numerous modes
of microscopy to visualise the cells of the tissues.
In trendy occasions, the sophistication
concerned with histology is unimaginable, involving the statement of
the varied mobile actions in tissue that’s nonetheless alive or in
observing numerous mobile elements as they go about their
life-giving actions. Medical histology is a vital area
dedicated to the research of pathology, corresponding to is seen in most cancers or different
Dr. Ramón y Cajal might be thought-about as
one of many founding fathers of neuroscience. It’s because his primary
contributions on this realm needed to do together with his histological research
relating to the neuroanatomy of central nervous system (CNS), which in
flip consists of the mind and spinal twine. The CNS relays electrical
sensory alerts between itself and the peripheral nervous system
(PNS) and the physique’s muscular system. The CNS receives these
exterior sensory stimuli and interprets them with a purpose to make
selections and instruct the neuromuscular system to conduct behavioral
The CNS represents some of the
difficult organic techniques ever recognized. Though the
neuroscientists in trendy occasions frequently make nice strides on a
routine foundation, they however have a lot work remaining to do with
respect to how the CNS features at a elementary degree.
5) His inventive skills bode him nicely –
when it comes to his drawings. What has he contributed? Professor Varela,
in an try and get highschool college students and even school college students
to delve extra deeply into the lives of those well-known scientists, I
have listed a number of YouTube videos- I hope they meet together with your
When he was younger Dr. Ramón y Cajal
had been an aspiring artist, drawing as many topics as he might,
even getting himself into fairly critical hassle so as to take action,
not solely together with his father, but in addition with the authorities, in some
instances. As a drawer, he clearly had a burgeoning expertise. His curiosity
in drawing as a profession was some extent of rivalry between younger
Santiago and his father. He skilled telling adventures trying
to steal uncommon flowers as a way to draw them for his portfolio. On the
level of exasperation the elder Dr. Ramón y Cajal launched his son
to the macabre research of human anatomy, a brand new curiosity which younger
Ramón y Cajal might apply his drawing expertise to and of which he took
to coronary heart. The brand new mental pursuit modified his life.
As an unbiased investigator, Dr.
Ramón y Cajal produced superb drawings of neuroanatomical tissues,
clearly drawing neuronal branches rising from the spinal cords of
laboratory animals. The inventive and scientific output of drawings by
Dr. Ramón y Cajal was legendary, working day-after-day and night time,
foregoing holidays, and so on., as a way to proceed his work.
The voluminous work of Dr. Ramón y
Cajal is inspiring. As your query relating to the YouTube movies
attests, younger individuals in trendy occasions have (re)found his
awe-inspiring work. I feel this can be a warmly welcomed alternative for
aspiring younger scientific investigators. It’s particularly related
provided that whereas a lot is understood relating to the mind and spinal
twine, that a large quantity of its physiological, mobile,
biochemical and molecular information of its primary perform continues to be
largely unknown and even unexplored.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal’s drawings additionally
make for nice artwork, and a substantial amount of microscopic-based photographs in
the scientific realm can definitely be envisaged as inventive. I feel
that is certainly one of details to be made relating to Dr. Ramón y Cajal
and the YouTube movies that you simply recognized. On many events,
artists educated as such could be referred to as upon to assemble visible
graphics depicting organic buildings and their mobile
mechanisms. Artists are wanted to assist scientists convey the
mechanistic particulars of varied physiological processes, throughout public
shows or of their publications within the literature. Whereas it’s
unclear to what extent YouTube as a venue for younger individuals will
proceed to be an necessary medium as the present generations
proceed to age, it’s clear that there’s a super quantity of
room for artwork and science to turn out to be linked collectively. Relating to this
linkage, like many nice scientists, Dr. Ramón y Cajal was many
generations forward of his time.
6) As I perceive he gained the Nobel
Prize- what was this for?
Briefly, Dr. Ramón y Cajal earned the
Nobel Prize, in 1906, within the class of Drugs or Physiology. He
shared the prize with Dr. Camillo Golgi, who had invented a way
for staining tissues, utilizing a silver chromate chemical to take action. Dr.
Ramón y Cajal used this Golgi method to review extra intently CNS
cells and tissue. He found that the CNS was composed of separate
nerve cells, now referred to as neurons. The implications of the so-called
neuron principle have been profound. It instantly recommended that the mind
and spinal twine have been made up seemingly of billions of separate cells.
As a result of Dr. Ramón y Cajal’s work it now turned recognized that the CNS
is a particularly difficult organ from an anatomical perspective.
Moreover, this difficult structural nature of the nervous
system, in flip, indicated that there’s a particularly difficult
useful nature with correspondingly complicated units of mobile and
molecular mechanisms related to it. The profound ramifications
of this structural-functional and mechanistic insights would perpetually
change the best way neuroscientists would view the nervous system.
As soon as the idea of the person
neuron had been postulated by Dr. Ramón y Cajal and had turn into
accepted (albeit slowly), then additional insightful advances in
neuroscience turned attainable. The research of nerve perform was now a
risk. Investigators might now analysis how nerves work, how
alerts might be generated, transmitted and acquired by and between
neurons. Because of the pioneering work of Dr. Ramón y Cajal many
practical features of the mind and spinal twine fell into place. The
electrical alerts between neurons, referred to as motion potentials, turned
a focus of research by the neuroscientists. The sector of
neuroscience exploded. At the moment, many hundreds of scientists have
specialised within the area.
7) Are you able to summarize his contributions
to the sector of drugs?
Along with figuring out the
Nobel-winning notion that nerve cells, neurons, are discrete entities
and never fused into an enormous neuro-filament bundle, he additionally decided
that neurons have been related to one another by forming synapses. That
is, one nerve cell consisting of its cell physique referred to as a soma and an
prolonged axon construction the place its finish, referred to as a pre-synaptic terminal
will hook up with the subsequent (separate) neuron by forming a synapse with
the so-called post-synaptic finish of that second neuron. Additional, Dr.
Ramón y Cajal postulated that these pre- and post-synaptic neurons
weren’t truly bodily related. As an alternative, based mostly on his
investigative research in his laboratory, he theorized that these
synapses, which he referred to as “connexions” consisted of areas the place
these related nerves weren’t truly touching one another with
their respective membranes. He discovered these connexions all through the
mind and spinal twine and even in peripheral nerves. He confirmed these
numerous connexions as occurring in so-called Purkinje nerve fibers,
which serves inhibitory features in sure instances.
Later research of those so-called
connexions confirmed that pre-synaptic nerve terminals would launch
packets of neurotransmitters, similar to small molecules like
acetylcholine, or norepinephrine, which might transfer throughout the area
of the synapse to succeed in the post-synaptic finish of the related
neuron to proceed the electrical impulses throughout the pathway of a
specific neuronal system. In some instances, the electrical impulse was
excitatory, inflicting a sure perform to happen, or inhibitory, such
as seen in Purkinje cells, thus, inflicting the inactivation of a
perform. Different research confirmed neuromuscular junctions during which a
sure sort of neuron, referred to as collaterals or reflexomotors by Dr.
Ramón y Cajal, would innervate a muscle to trigger it to contract or
maybe chill out its contraction.
When it comes to embryonic improvement of
the mind, Dr. Ramón y Cajal discovered rising nerve ends, referred to as axonal
progress cones. These progress cones had endpoints to them, ends of
nerves, which he interpreted as which means that nerve cells have been
contiguous and never fused, i.e., not steady, with one another. In
trendy occasions, the expansion of nerve endings throughout mind improvement is
an extensively studied subject in neuroscience. He had additional
postulated that progress cones have been guided by gradients of chemical compounds,
displaying a conduct referred to as chemotaxis. This space is of specific
significance as information of its progress mechanism may pave the best way
for reconnecting severed spinal cords after traumatic accidents happen
during which sufferers are paralyzed. Severed neurons within the CNS don’t
reconnect, and information of axonal progress cone making connections
between neurons throughout improvement is a promising avenue.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal additionally studied, in his
phrases, the “much less necessary sympathetic system of the intestines.”
Later investigators, nevertheless, have been to seek out that his research into the
matter have been of nice significance because it helped clarify how the
gastrointestinal tract conducts its contractions as regulated by the
perform of clean muscle cells. Dr. Ramón y Cajal reported that he
studied new forms of cells on this area, and as a tribute to him,
certainly one of these cell varieties has been named interstitial cells of Cajal,
every in flip having totally different sub-categories, akin to intramuscular
interstitial cells of Cajal, or myenteric interstitial cells of
eight) What have I uncared for to ask?
For aspiring scientists Dr. Ramón y
Cajal wrote a well-liked guide, referred to as “Recommendation for a Younger
Investigator.” The e-book is a frank treatise on pragmatic points
for younger scientists. His ebook is full of loads of sensible
recommendation on many points of scientific analysis. For instance, the guide
consists of directions on learn how to write scientific papers or learn how to be
an efficient instructor. When he had written additionally in his private
memoirs about his early schooling he named not solely his academics’
numerous errors, he named his academics.
Apparently, in 2005, an asteroid or
minor planet, 1.four km in measurement, was named after this nice scientist:
“Ramonycajal asteroid quantity 117413,” and its orbit has been
definitively calculated. I’m unsure if asteroid Ramonycajal
117413 is definitely slated to work together with and even come shut in any
means close to to the Earth, however it’s most definitely recognized that Dr. Ramón
y Cajal has made a huge effect within the information of our brains.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal’s colour drawings
have been exhibited in artwork exhibits and showcased in museums. His work
has been inspirational to artists worldwide. As your YouTube inquiry
above signifies, his work will little question proceed to make influential
contributions to generations of artists and scientists alike and to
be a constructive inspiration for anybody who learns about him.
Dr. Ramón y Cajal handed away in
Madrid, Spain, on the 17th day of October, in 1934, at 82
years of age.
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