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I gave a presentation on Social Research Requirements on the March Eight, 2019 Nebraska State Board of Schooling Assembly.  Within the speak and the following report, I differentiate between an exemplary Sort #1 schooling and a weak Sort #2 schooling.  For example Sort #1 and Sort #2 requirements, I make the most of precise requirements from Nebraska and Texas.  My 10-minute testimony begins at about Time Mark three:30 and ends at 13:30.  This can be a Hyperlink to the video of the State Board Assembly:

Your State Might Have Robust Sort #1 Social Research Requirements

By Henry W. Burke


good knowledge-based requirements, college students will obtain a high-quality
schooling; check scores will enhance; commencement charges will improve; and
Nebraska may have a better-educated citizenry. 

This report supplies the rules and strategy required to acquire robust Sort #1 Social Research Requirements.


is extraordinarily essential to know a couple of fundamentals of schooling
requirements.  In my 1.31.14 report, “Proposed Nebraska English Requirements,”
I described the 2 philosophies of schooling.  The report defined:

          Most significantly, first-class state requirements have to be Sort #1, not Sort #2!

          Schooling skilled Donna Garner has developed terminology that differentiates between an exemplary, conventional schooling (Sort
#1) and the project-based, subjectively assessed philosophy of
schooling as exemplified in Widespread Core Requirements (Sort #2).  Mrs.
Garner has said:

Sort #1 means the curriculum requirements are
conventional/knowledge-based/educational, emphasize back-to-the-basics core
information and expertise that develop in depth and complexity from one grade
degree to the subsequent, are particular for every grade degree (or course), and
could be examined largely by means of goal questions which have
right-or-wrong solutions.’

          Exemplary schooling requirements have to be Sort #1!  

Widespread Core Requirements in addition to school-to-work, outcome-based
schooling, competency –based mostly schooling, and so forth. are examples of Sort #2.

With Sort #2 schooling, college students work in teams, obtain group grades,
and obtain project-based studying (constructivism).  Exams
(assessments) have many subjective questions with few if any proper or flawed solutions; the
individuals scoring the exams decide what’s right. The emphasis for
the scholars turns into the method as an alternative of the best solutions.

Donna Garner offered the next insights:

          If we would like our public faculty youngsters to study to learn properly, we should have Sort #1.

          If we would like them to have the ability to converse and write English properly, then we should have Sort #1.

If we would like our public faculty youngsters to have the ability to do nicely in overseas
languages, then we should have Sort #1 that teaches the phonetic sound
system and grammar/utilization in English in order that they will apply that to their
overseas language studying.  

If we would like our public faculty youngsters to learn the good items of
literature which have related our nation to previous generations, then we
should have Sort #1.

we would like our public faculty youngsters to have the talents and information
they want for school and/or the office, then we should have Sort #1.

A useful chart lists the traits of a Sort #1 vs. a Sort #2 schooling: 


Sort #1 (Conventional) vs. Sort #2 (CSCOPE & Widespread Core)

Description Sort #1TraditionalClassical Studying Sort #2CSCOPE andCommon Core Requirements Progressive,Radical Social Justice Agenda
Instruction Direct instruction by instructor Self-directed studying, group-think Emphasis on:Subjectivity,
emotions, feelings, beliefs, multiculturalism, political correctness,
social engineering, globalism, evolution, sexual freedom,
contraceptives, environmental extremism, international warming and local weather
change, victimization, variety, acceptance of homosexuality as regular,
redistribution of wealth  De-emphasis on:Declaration of Independence, Invoice of Rights, Structure, nationwide sovereignty, Founding Fathers, American exceptionalism 
Curriculum Educational, fact-based, expertise, analysis Social considerations, project-based, constructivism, subjective, makes use of unproven fads and theories
Instructor’s Position Authority determine; units the plan for the category; educational instruction Facilitator
Scholar’s Position Study
from instructor; give attention to factual studying, develop basis expertise for
logical and analytical reasoning, unbiased considering
College students train one another; concentrate on emotions, feelings, opinions; group-think
English, Language Arts, Studying (ELAR) Phonics; classical literature; cursive handwriting; grammar; utilization; right spelling; expository, persuasive, analysis writing Entire language, balanced literacy, Guided Studying; no cursive writing instruction so can’t learn main paperwork of Founding Fathers
Arithmetic “Drill and Talent,” 4 math features discovered to automaticity Fuzzy math, rejects drill and memorization of math information, depending on calculators
Social Research Give attention to American heritage and exceptionalism, nationwide sovereignty, Founding paperwork Variety, multiculturalism, globalization, revisionist historical past, political correctness
Character Improvement Professional-faith, self-control, private duty, self-discipline, strong work ethic Secular, ethical relativism, anti-faith, victimization
Equality Equal alternatives Equal outcomes
Evaluation College students evaluated by earned grades, goal checks Inflated grades, subjective assessments evaluated based mostly upon worth system of grader, group grades
Outcomes Goal exams (right-or-wrong solutions), emphasis on educational expertise and information Subjective assessments; emphasis on holistic, “really feel good” scoring

Unique chart produced by Carole H. Haynes, Ph.D. – [email protected]

Revised chart produced by HWB 11.04.13.

the two.three.14 State Board Work Session, I expanded the parameters for
exemplary requirements to 6 gadgets.  These would give academics, college students,
and fogeys much more readability. (For ease in speaking on this paper,
I’m going to refer to those because the “Burke parameters.”)  I said the

As a way to have wonderful state requirements, they must be:

          1.  Specific

          2.  Information-based…fact-based

          three.  Educational

          four.  Clearly-worded

          5.  Grade-level particular

          6.  Measurable

          If state requirements adjust to the six standards listed above [the Burke parameters]academics won’t
need to second-guess the requirements writers.  Faculty districts won’t
want to rent costly consultants to “interpret” the requirements nor to
develop curriculum; it is going to be readily obvious what’s required for
each grade (and course). 

“knowledge-based…reality based mostly” parameter signifies that the requirements
parts should confer with conventional topic content material.  The “educational”
parameter signifies that the requirements parts should not be geared towards indoctrinating youngsters’s minds into the social justice agenda however as an alternative are scholarly. 

“grade-level particular” means the requirements should set clear objectives for
academics and college students to succeed in at every grade degree/course.  With out
clear written objectives for every grade degree/course, academics can be
confused as to which instructor is meant to show which normal. 
Neither academics nor college students will really feel true accountability for
educating/studying particular topic content material.  With out clear written
objectives, how will mother and father know whether or not or not their youngsters have reached
grade-level proficiency?

have repeated this record of the six parameters of excellent requirements [the
Burke parameters] many occasions through the ensuing months.  The State Board
of Schooling and the Nebraska Division of Schooling (NDE) may be
uninterested in listening to these six factors, however I consider there’s appreciable
worth in repetition.


The Nebraska Social Research Requirements can be found in each the horizontal format and the vertical format.  The Requirements (in Horizontal Format) are posted on the NDE web site at:

the requirements are displayed in a Horizontal Format, a normal or talent
can simply be adopted from one grade degree to the subsequent grade degree. 
(The Nebraska English Requirements and the Nebraska Arithmetic Requirements
can be found in each the vertical format and the horizontal format.)

The 2012 Nebraska Social Research Requirements in Vertical Format are listed right here:

As a result of the 2012 Nebraska Social Research Requirements don’t fulfill the six parameters of exemplary Sort #1 requirements, the Nebraska Requirements are weak Sort #2 requirements. 

The six parameters are utilized to the present Nebraska Social Research Requirements within the following examples:

1.  Specific

Is that this normal too obscure for a third-grade scholar?

Historical past – Grade three

          Examine and distinction how numerous sources relate their perspective of historical past (e.g., group occasions).

ANSWER — The above commonplace is a obscure Sort #2 normal.

This normal just isn’t very specific:

Geography – Grades 6-Eight

Determine and consider human variations to the setting from the
native to the worldwide ranges (e.g., clothes, sewage techniques,
transportation techniques, pure disasters, shortage of assets).

This normal could be very basic:

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

          (WLD) Consider how selections affected occasions the world over (e.g., revolutions, alliances, treaties).

2.  Information-based / fact-based

These Historical past requirements are proven:

Historical past – Grade 5

          Describe ideas of time and chronology (e.g., BC, BCE, AD, CE and eras).

Historical past — Grades 6-Eight

          (World: Beginnings to 1000 CE)

ANSWER – The above requirements are Sort #2.  

long-established chronological conference is to indicate years as BC and
AD (e.g., 1,000 B.C. or 1,500 A.D.)  The writers of the Nebraska Social
Research Requirements inserted the secular notion of BCE and CE, introducing
pointless confusion.

Sort #1 requirements are knowledge-based/fact-based that develop in depth and
complexity from one grade degree to the subsequent.  With a attainable span of
six grade ranges, little progress is required beneath these requirements:

Civics – Grades 6-Eight

Describe methods people take part within the political course of (e.g.,
registering and voting, contacting authorities officers, marketing campaign

Civics – Highschool

Consider how people and teams can successfully use the construction
and features of varied ranges of presidency to form coverage (e.g.,
lobbying, voting, contacting authorities officers, petitioning).

three.  Educational

requirements have to be educational, relatively than based mostly on the usual author’s
opinions, beliefs, or feelings.  Political correctness has no place in
good requirements.

This commonplace just isn’t educational:

Economics – Grades 6-Eight

          Talk about numerous philosophies relating to governments’ position in an financial system (e.g., capitalism, socialism).

The follow-up on “capitalism” and “socialism” in Excessive Faculty could be very weak.

Economics – Excessive Faculty

          Consider the historic use of varied financial techniques.

This commonplace is biased and never very educational:

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

Analyze and consider how a number of views facilitate the
understanding of the complete story of world historical past (e.g., the Crusades,
nationalism, imperialism, apartheid, Arab/Israeli conflicts).

four.  Clearly-worded

Is that this normal clearly worded for the instructor and a first-grade scholar?

Geography – Grade 1

Give examples of how geographic information or methods have been
utilized up to now, current and future (e.g., make a map of the

ANSWER – The above normal shouldn’t be clearly worded for a primary grader.

Is that this normal clearly worded?

Economics – Highschool

          Perceive that equilibrium worth and amount are decided by provide and demand.

A instructor would have a troublesome time making use of this normal:

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

Examine and consider contradictory historic narratives of Trendy
World Historical past via willpower of credibility, contextualization,
and corroboration.

5.  Grade-level particular

main deficiency within the Nebraska Social Research Requirements is that they
aren’t grade-level particular.  Nebraska’s Social Research Requirements
embrace separate grade-level requirements for less than Grades Okay-5.  After Grade
5, requirements are lumped collectively for Grades 6 – Eight.  Requirements must be
particular for each grade degree Okay-Eight. 

Requirements must be applicable for every grade degree.  Might second-graders carry out the next normal?

Geography – Grade 2

Determine the way you may apply geographic information or methods to
remedy an issue (e.g., use international positioning system (GPS) navigation
for shortest route to high school; map locations for household trip to
decide one of the best order to go to).

Might a third-grade scholar carry out this commonplace?

Geography – Grade three

Determine how geography impacts spatial drawback fixing (e.g., a brand new
faculty have to be close to giant numbers of scholars, on obtainable land with
appropriate soils, have entry to roads and utilities, and never overlap
faculties in different neighborhoods; plan the place issues can be inbuilt a

ANSWERS – College students in second and third grade couldn’t carry out the above requirements.

all the Social Research Requirements, grade ranges 6-Eight are listed
collectively.  Academics won’t know what to cowl in Grade 6, Grade 7, and
Grade Eight.  This can be a typical instance:

Historical past – Grades 6-Eight

(US) Look at the chronology of historic occasions in the USA
analyze their impression on the previous, current, and future.

6.  Measurable

How would this normal be measured?

Historical past – Grade three

          Look at sources on group historical past via willpower of credibility, contextualization, and corroboration.

ANSWER – The above commonplace shouldn’t be measurable.

Is that this commonplace measurable?

Civics – Grades 6-Eight

Consider how cooperation and battle amongst individuals have contributed to
political, financial, and social occasions and conditions within the United

This commonplace could be very obscure.  Who determines the important thing nationwide occasions?

Historical past – Grades 6-Eight

          (US) Classify key nationwide occasions in chronological order (e.g., timelines with eras and chosen key occasions).


The Texas State Requirements are discovered within the Texas Important Information and Expertise (TEKS). 

The brand new Texas TEKS Social Research Requirements are included beneath:

Streamlined Social Research TEKS Adopted by State Board of Schooling

The State Board of Schooling (SBOE) gave ultimate approval on November 16, 2018, to the streamlined social research TEKS for Okay-Eight and 5 excessive faculty social research programs.

As a result of
I chosen requirements from the Texas TEKS which might be for a similar grade
ranges and topic areas because the Nebraska requirements listed on this
report, it’s straightforward to match the Nebraska and Texas requirements. 

The next examples illustrate how the Texas Social Research Requirements fulfill the six parameters of robust Sort #1 Requirements:

1.  Specific

These requirements are very specific:

Historical past – Grade three

describe how people, together with Daniel Boone and the Founding
Fathers have contributed to the enlargement of present communities or to
the creation of latest communities.

Geography – Grade 6

determine and find main bodily and human geographic options such
as landforms, water our bodies, and concrete facilities of varied locations and
areas; and

          (D) determine the situation of main world nations for every of the world areas.

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

analyze and consider the textual content, intent, which means, and significance of the
Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Structure, together with the
Invoice of Rights;

          (B) analyze and consider the appliance of those founding rules to historic occasions in U.S. historical past; and

          (C) clarify the which means and historic significance of the mottos “E Pluribus Unum” and “In God We Belief.”

2.  Information-based…fact-based

The Texas TEKS requirements are knowledge-based and fact-based.

Historical past – Grade 5

determine the Founding Fathers and Patriot heroes, together with John Adams,
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, the Sons of Liberty, and George
Washington, and their motivations and contributions in the course of the
revolutionary interval; and

          (C) summarize the outcomes of the American Revolution, together with the institution of the USA.

Historical past – Grade 6

(A) hint traits of varied modern societies in areas
that resulted from historic occasions or elements similar to colonization,
immigration, and commerce; and

(B) analyze the historic background of varied modern societies
to guage relationships between previous conflicts and present

Sort #1 requirements are knowledge-based/fact-based that develop in depth and
complexity from one grade degree to the subsequent.  With a potential span of
six grade ranges, discover the expansion required beneath these requirements:

Citizenship – Grade 6

          (A) determine and clarify the obligation of civic participation in societies with consultant governments; and

          (B) clarify relationships amongst rights, duties, and duties in societies with consultant governments.

Citizenship – Excessive Faculty

talk about values essential to America’s success as a constitutional
republic, together with liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism,
and laissez-faire; and

          (B) describe how the American values are totally different and distinctive from these of different nations.

(C) clarify how participation within the democratic course of displays our
nationwide id, patriotism, and civic duty.

three.  Educational

Texas Requirements are educational and well-written.  Good requirements ought to
emphasize educational expertise and information, not somebody’s opinions or

Economics – Grade 6

examine and distinction free enterprise, socialist, and communist
economies in numerous modern societies, together with the advantages of
the U.S. free enterprise system; and

          (C) perceive the significance of ethics in sustaining a practical free enterprise system.

Economics – Excessive Faculty

clarify the advantages of the U.S. free enterprise system, together with
particular person freedom of shoppers and producers, number of items,
responsive costs, funding alternatives, and the creation of wealth;

(B) analyze current modifications within the primary traits, together with
personal property, incentives, financial freedom, competitors, and the
restricted position of presidency, of the U.S. financial system.

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

          (A) determine the most important eras in U.S. historical past from 1877 to the current and describe their defining traits; and

(B) clarify the importance of the next years as turning factors:
1898 (Spanish American Conflict), 1914-1918 (World Struggle I), 1929 (the Nice
Melancholy begins), 1939- 1945 (World Conflict II), 1957 (Sputnik launch
ignites U.S.-Soviet area race), 1968 (Martin Luther King Jr.
assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Chilly Struggle ends),
2001 (terrorist assaults on World Commerce Middle and the Pentagon), and
2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).

four.  Clearly-worded

Texas TEKS for Social Research are clearly-worded and devoid of
instructional jargon.  Academics, college students, and fogeys ought to have the ability to
simply perceive the requirements, with out the necessity for a advisor to
interpret the requirements.

Geography – Grade 1

          (A) describe the situation of self and objects relative to different places within the classroom and faculty utilizing spatial phrases; and

          (B) find locations utilizing the 4 cardinal instructions.

Economics – Excessive Faculty

(A) describe traits and provides examples of pure competitors,
monopolistic competitors, oligopoly, and monopoly; and

          (B) determine laws that apply to the institution and operation of varied kinds of market buildings.      

Historical past – Excessive Faculty

          (E) examine and distinction the strategy taken by the Black Panthers with the nonviolent strategy of Martin Luther King Jr.;

(F) talk about the impression of the writings of Martin Luther King Jr. such
as his “I Have a Dream” speech and “Letter from Birmingham Jail” on the
civil rights motion.

5.  Grade-level particular

has offered grade level-specific requirements for all grades, Okay-Eight.  Excessive
Faculty requirements are sometimes grouped by the actual course topics;
Texas has adopted that plan.

Geography – Grade 2

(A) determine and use info on maps and globes utilizing primary map
parts resembling title, cardinal instructions, and legend; and

          (B) create maps to point out locations and routes inside the residence, faculty, and group.

Geography – Grade three

          (B) use a scale to find out the space between locations on maps and globes.

determine, create, and interpret maps of locations that include map
parts, together with a title, compass rose, legend, scale, and grid

Historical past – Grade 6

          (A) determine and describe the historic affect of people or teams on numerous modern societies; and

(B) describe the social, political, financial, and cultural
contributions of people and teams from numerous societies, previous and

6.  Measurable

Texas TEKS Requirements are measurable and the scholars might be examined on
these requirements with goal questions.  Subjective questions ought to
be prevented each time potential as a result of the solutions rely upon the
opinions of the check author.

Historical past – Grade three

determine causes individuals have shaped communities, together with a necessity for
safety and legal guidelines, spiritual freedom, and materials well-being;

(B) determine people, together with Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Benjamin
Banneker, and Benjamin Franklin, who’ve helped to form communities.

Citizenship – Grade 6

          (A) determine and clarify the obligation of civic participation in societies with consultant governments; and

          (B) clarify relationships amongst rights, duties, and duties in societies with consultant governments.

Historical past – Grade Eight

          (A) clarify the explanations for the expansion of consultant authorities and establishments in the course of the colonial interval;

(B) analyze the significance of the Mayflower Compact, the Elementary
Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia Home of Burgesses to the expansion
of consultant authorities; and

          (C) describe how faith and advantage contributed to the expansion of consultant authorities within the American colonies.


common feedback are provided on the Nebraska Social Research Requirements
and the Texas TEKS Social Research Requirements.  Desk 1 exhibits how the
Nebraska requirements are distributed via the grade ranges.

Desk 1.  Nebraska 2012 Social Research Requirements: Variety of Requirements

 Grade Topic  Complete
Civics Economics Geography Historical past
      Okay       10         2       14       12       38
      1       13         three       16       12       44
      2       16         6       17       13       52
      three       18         9      18       17       62
      four         three         9       18       18       48
      5         three         9       18       17       47
    6 -Eight         three       19       21       29       72
Excessive Faculty         four       47       31       39     121
    Totals       70     104     153     157     484

the Texas Social Research Requirements, the writers included the next
topics: Historical past, Geography, Economics, Authorities, Citizenship,
Tradition, Science, and Social Research Expertise.  Nebraska included solely
4 topics: Civics, Economics, Geography, and Historical past.  The broader
scope of the Texas TEKS higher prepares the Texas highschool graduates
to be well-informed residents of this nation.

The Texas Requirements are distinctly Sort #1 requirements, whereas the Nebraska Requirements are Sort #2.


did I dedicate a lot area on this report back to the Texas Requirements?  The
reply is sort of easy – Your state can make the most of these Requirements.

took the Texas State Board of Schooling and the Texas Schooling Company
(TEA) a few years to develop a tried-and-true course of for writing,
reviewing, revising, and adopting their very own State Requirements.  Texas has
produced robust Sort #1 Requirements in all the topic areas, and
Social Research is not any exception. 

There’s completely no cause for a State to develop its personal requirements, but that strategy has been taken usually. 

2013, we contacted the highest officers on the Texas Schooling Company
(TEA) about utilizing their requirements in different states.  On 11.four.13, the TEA
replied that their requirements have been developed with public monies and are
not copyrighted.  They even stated they might help one other state in
creating their requirements.  Once more, the Texas TEKS usually are not copyrighted!

Social Research Writing Workforce ought to make the most of the Texas TEKS as a information. 
In lots of instances, the Staff might merely use the Texas requirements as
written.  It might sound trite to say, “Why reinvent the wheel?”

I strongly urge the States to comply with the rules and proposals on this report.  Thereby,

          Your State Might Have Robust Sort #1 Social Research Requirements!


Bio for Henry W. Burke

Burke is a Civil Engineer with a B.S.C.E. and M.S.C.E.  He has been a
Registered Skilled Engineer (P.E.) for 37 years and has labored as a
Civil Engineer in development for over 45 years. 

Mr. Burke had a profitable 27-year profession with a big development firm. 

Burke has served as a full-time volunteer to supervise numerous
development tasks. He has written quite a few articles on schooling,
engineering, development, politics, taxes, and the financial system.

Henry W. Burke

E-mail:  [email protected]

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